History of Uttarakhand

We are not the makers of the HISTORY
We are made by the HISTORY

Martin Luther King Jr.

Uttarakhand finds mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavant.

The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, Chandras and Panwars and the British have ruled it in turns.

Uttarakhand was earlier a part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh which came into existence in 1902.

In 1935, the name of state was shortened to the United Province. In January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal remained a part of Uttar Pradesh before it was carved out in 2000.

Following is a timeline of the formation of the state of Uttaranchal and later on renaming it as Uttarakhand.


  • First demand

    The first demand of Uttarakhand arose in 1897 and there had gradually been rising demand for a separate state several times since then.

  • Kumaon Parishad

    Kumaon Parishad was founded by Pt Hargovind vallabh Pant , Govind Ballabh Pant, Badri Datt Pandey, Indralal Shah, Mohan Singh Damarwal, Chandra Lal Shah, Prem Ballabh Pandey, Bhola Datt Pandey and Lakshmi Datt Shastri with the main objective to solve social and economic problems of the hill region along with some political goals.

    In the Provincial elections of 1923 and 1926 the candidates of Kumaon Parishad, Hargovind vallabh Pant, Govind Ballabh Pant , Mukundi Lal and Badri Datt Pandey badly defeated their counterparties.

    In 1926 Kumaon Parishad was merged in the Indian National Congress.

  • INC takes a stand

     In May 1938, according to official sources in then British Raj, in the national general convention of Indian National Congress held at Srinagar, Garhwal, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru favoured the cause of movement of the residents of hill region to have their own decisions according to their circumstances and supported the movement to enrich their culture.

  • Demands in 1940s

    In 1940, at Haldwani conference, Badri Datt Pandey voiced for the special status of the mountainous region.

    Badri Dutt Pandey

    Anusuya Prasad Bahuguna proposed the formation of Kumaon – Garhwal as the separate units.

    Anusuya Prasad Bahuguna

  • Post indepence activities

    In 1954 the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Council member Indra Singh Nayal demanded the separate development plan for the highlands to then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Govind Ballabh Pant.

    Govind Ballabh Pant

     1955 the Justice Fazal Ali commission recommended the Government of India, formation of hill region as a separate state.

  • Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (UKD)

     In 24 July 1979 the Uttarakhand Kranti Dal was founded in Mussoorie by Indramani Badoni, Kashi Singh Airy, Bipin Chandra Tripathi, D. D. Pant with the objective of the formation of a separate hill state.

    Indramani Badoni

    In November 1987 UKD passed the party resolution for the formation of new state.

  • Intensified Movement, 1994

    Student movements started, leaders of UKD held fast-unto-death and state government employees struck work for three months for a separate state.

     Uttarakhand movement further intensified in the field by Anti-Uttarakhand statement of then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Mulayam Singh Yadav.

  • Khatima GoliKand

    On 1st September 1994, Uttarakhand activists in Khatima of Udhamsingh Nagar district were shot down by the police.

    In this movement, indiscriminate firing was carried out on the agitators without warning by the police, resulting in the death of seven andolankaris.
    Martyrs of Khatima Golikand were Late Bhagwan Singh Siraula, Late Pratap Singh, Late Salim Ahmed, Late Gopichand, Late Dharmanand Bhatt, Late Paramjit Singh and Late Rampal

  • Mussoorie GoliKand

    On 2nd September 1994, Uttarakhand activists in Mussoorie were shot down by the police.

    An image of the horrific incident
  • Full fledged movement

    Under the aegis of the Samyukta Morcha in 2 October 1994 the massive demonstrations and protests for the support of statehood took place in the national capital Delhi. Thousands of the Uttarakhand activists marched to the Delhi to take participation in this struggle.

    The activists peacefully taking part in the demonstration near Rampur Tiraha crossing, Muzaffarnagar were tortured and openly fired without any warning prior to the firing.

    Satya Pokhriyal was leader who leads all the people from the misshappening, other andolankari help other people and shows the bravery. Several people were killed and many were injured. This misadventure by the police added fuel to the fire for Uttarakhand movement.

    7 October 1994, a female activist died after the brutal attack by police in Dehradun while she was protesting against Rampur Tiraha Firings, and the activists in return stormed the police station.

    15 October, curfew took in Dehradun and one activist was killed on the same day.

    27 October 1994, then Home Minister of India, Rajesh Pilot held the talks with the statehood activists. Meanwhile, at Sriyantra Tapu, Srinagar several activists were killed in a brutal attack by the police.

    Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi sat on a hunger strike 13 times to make Gairsain the capital and formation of the state of Uttarakhand. He united the people of the hills and his last fast (in Adibadari) lasted for 38 days. He died in August 2004 during this fast.

    Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi

  • The most awaited announcement

    15 August 1996, then Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda announced the formation of new state Uttaranchal from the Red Fort, Delhi.

    HD Deve Gowda making the announcement
  • and Uttarakhand was formed..

    In 1998 the BJP-led coalition government in the center sent the ‘Uttaranchal Bill’ to the Government of Uttar Pradesh through the President of India. With 26 amendments the Uttaranchal Bill was passed by the Uttar Pradesh Assembly and sent back to the Central Government.

    State of Uttarakhand/Uttaranchal carved out from Uttar Pradesh
    State of Uttarakhand/Uttaranchal carved out from Uttar Pradesh

    The Central Government on 27 July 2000, presented the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Bill 2000 in the Parliament of India. It was passed by Lok Sabha on 1 August 2000, and the Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 10 August 2000. Then President of India, K. R. Narayanan approved the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Bill, on 28 August 2000, and then it turned into Act and on 9 November 2000 the new state Uttaranchal came into existence as the 27th state of India now known as Uttarakhand.

  • Gairsain the summer capital of Uttarakhand

    Gairsain the new summer capital of Uttarakhand

    In March 2020, Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat announced that Gairsain(गैरसैंण) of Chamoli district would be made the summer capital of Uttarakhand during the presentation of the budget.

The more you know about the past, the better prepared you are for the future

Theodore Roosevelt

Cherish the rich history of Uttarakhand .

8 thoughts on “History of Uttarakhand

    1. Thanks a lot.
      Dehradun is love. We are based in Mussoorie.
      Most of the people dont know about the history of Uttarakhand and struggle that people put in for its formation. Please share the article with your friends as well.

      Liked by 1 person

  1. Thanks for sharing the history of Uttarakhand with us. I could have never known the sacrifices made by our ancestors for this land.


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