Sant Nirankari Mission and Uttarakhand

The Sant Nirankari Mission (also known as Universal Brotherhood Mission) is a spiritual organisation based in Delhi, India.

The Nirankaris, initially an offshoot of Sikhism, was founded in the 1840s by Baba Dayal Das (1783-1885) and his disciples Darbara Singh and Ratta Ji. Baba Dayal Das emphasized the worship of God as Nirankar (formless God). His approach meant a rejection of idols and ritualism. His disciples were to worship the formless God, obey the shabad (preaching) of the Guru, serve their parents, avoid bad habits and earn their livelihood through work. Eating meat, drinking liquor, lying and cheating were forbidden. They accept authority of a living Guru whereas other sects in Sikhism believe that after 10th Guru Gobind Singh, no more living Gurus will be there and only Adi Granth Sahib ji is the eternal Guru of all Sikhs.

In 1929, one segment of the movement led by Baba Buta Singh Ji, now known as the Sant Nirankari Mission, disassociated itself from the original Nirankari movement as well as mainstream Sikhism and became an independent sect.

The Sant Nirankari Mission identifies itself as “neither a new religion nor a sect of an existing religion, but an all-embracing spiritual movement dedicated to human welfare by helping seekers realize God through the grace of a living true master (Satguru)”. They aim for standardized birth-death-marriage-rituals based on Sikh scripture, but free of cost.

The organization has more than 3000 centers and millions of followers across the world. Following is a brief timeline of the movement.

  • The organization was established in 1929 by Baba Buta Singh Ji.

    Baba Buta Singh Ji and his esteemed wife led a simple life having few demands. They had no children. Being a staunch devotee of the God, Baba Buta Singh Ji gave little thought to worldly requirements beyond what was necessary for the ‘present’. Baba Buta Singh Ji would spend most of his time in discussing spiritualism with friends and other acquaintances.

    Baba Buta Singh Ji
    Baba Buta Singh Ji
  • Baba Avtar Singh Ji succeeded Baba Buta Singh Ji

    Baba Avtar Singh Ji succeeded Baba Buta Singh Ji and preached the divine message during the period from 1943 to 1962. He was all out for the uplift of mankind through dissemination of the divine word. 

    Baba Avtar Singh Ji
  • Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji became the 3rd Guru

    With the passage of time, the fast growing number of devotees needed some organizational reforms. For this purpose, Baba Ji convened the First Mussoorie Conference on July 17 and 18, 1965, which was attended by the organizers and the preachers of the Mission. A number of important decisions were taken to streamline the administrative outfit and to spread message of Mission. To this end, the administrative work of the mission in the country was divided into four zones.

    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji
    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji

    Baba Ji convened the Second Mussoorie Conference on May 14th, 15th and 16th, 1973. The Conference turned out to be a watershed in the history of the Mission as it proposed a code of conduct for the missionaries. It was also decided at this conference that while we may not hate others on account of their diet-habits, we ourselves should abstain from the use of all kinds of intoxicants. Another decision was to promote dowry free marriages and observe austerity in other social functions.

  • Baba Hardev Singh Ji became the 4th Guru

    After the assassination of third Baba Gurubachan Singh ji, his son Baba Hardev Singh ji succeeded as the head of the organisation and spread the Mission’s message of universal brotherhood through God-realization until his untimely death on 13 May 2016.

    In 2005, he established the Nirankari Museum in Sant Nirankari Sarovar complex in New Delhi.

    Baba Hardev Singh Ji
    Baba Hardev Singh Ji

    Baba Ji emphasized that realisation of truth is the basic need of every human being to rise above all conflicts based on religion, caste, creed, colour, socio-economic status and cultural diversities. Once we understand the oneness of God, we appreciate the oneness of mankind, the unity in diversity and start living with the spirit of universal brotherhood. Peace within and harmony outside follow automatically. We cease to fight over the names of God and prophets.

    Hardev Singh ji died on 13 May 2016 in a car accident near Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  • Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji became the 5th Guru and the first woman to lead the Mission

    Her Holiness Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji, succeeded Baba Hardev Singh Ji Maharaj as the Spiritual Head of the Sant Nirankari Mission following his sudden merger into the Almighty Nirankar in a car crash in Canada on May 13, 2016.

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji

    Savinder Ji’s primary education took place in Farrukhabad. Thereafter, in 1966 she was sent to an Irish institution, the Convent of Jesus and Mary in Waverly, Mussoorie from where she passed the Indian School Certificate Examination (Senior Cambridge, equivalent to Senior Secondary), in 1973.

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji was always an important source of inspiration for the younger generation. She had her own pleasant way to attract them towards the Mission and persuade them to take part in various activities, rising above all kinds of worldly considerations normally baffling the modern youth.

    In this way, when called upon to lead the Sant Nirankari Mission, as its Spiritual Head, Her Holiness Mata Savinder Hardev Ji had the advantage of understanding its needs thoroughly. She pledged on the very first day to take the Mission to the heights where Baba Hardev Singh Ji Maharaj wanted to see. She knew every Pracharak and Prabandhak in India and abroad personally. She asked them to strengthen their mutual love and cooperation and help her in this pious endeavour.

    She, however, breathed her last at about 5.15 pm on August 5, 2018.

  • Satguru Mata Sudiksha Singh Ji became the current Guru of the Mission

     On 17 July 2018, Sudiksha Singh, daughter of former head of the mission Satguru Baba Hardev Singh and Mata Savinder Hardev, was declared as Nirankari Satguru and the Spiritual Head of Sant Nirankari Mission with the blessing of Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev.

    Satguru Mata Sudiksha Ji Maharaj

    The birth date of Satguru Mata Sudiksha Ji Maharaj is 1st of June 1985 and she is currently leading the mission at this young age with complete dedication and commitment.

Presence of the Nirankari Mission in Uttarakhand is well known. One of the earliest centres of Nirankari Bhawan was in Mussoorie located on the famous Camel’s Back Road. The hoarding on the top of it says एक को जानो, एक को मानो, एक हो जाओ which means Understand One, Believe in One and Get Together to be One.

Following are some of the locations of the centers of the Nirankari Mission in Uttarakhand

  1. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan,Camel’s Back Road Mussoorie, Uttarakhand
  2. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Haridwar Bypass, Kalagaon, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  3. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, 36, Tyagi Rd, Govind Nagar, Race Course, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  4. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Ganga Nagar, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
  5. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Panchwati Colony, Devpura, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  6. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Bahadrabad, Industrial Area, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  7. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Bhagwanpur, Uttarakhand
  8. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Bilaspur-Rudrapur-Haldwani Rd, Rudrapur, Uttarakhand
  9. Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Haldwani, Gaujajali Bichli, Uttarakhand
  10. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Garhinegi, Uttarakhand
  11. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Nadehi Road, Jaspur, Uttarakhand
  12. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Gurukul Narsan, Narsen Kalan, Uttarakhand
  13. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan Ashram, Dehradun Rd, Gandhi Nagar, Roorkee, Uttarakhand
  14. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Doiwala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  15. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, New Tehri, Uttarakhand
  16. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand
  17. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Chamba, Uniyal Gaon, Uttarakhand
  18. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Laksar, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  19. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Lam Grunt, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  20. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Kansmardani Marg, Srinagar, Uttarakhand Garhwal, Uttarakhand
  21. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Haldukhata Malla, Uttarakhand
  22. Sant Nirnkari Satsang Bhawan, Shahpur, Prem Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Various welfare activities are performed by the group in Uttarakhand like Social Reforms, Blood Donation Camps, Free Eye checkup Camps, Heath Care programs, Education initiatives, Women and Youth empowerment programs, Tree plantation drives and Cleanliness drives. These activities are performed by the Sant Nirankari Charitable Foundation.

Hope the good works by the Nirankari Mission and its charitable foundation continues and inspire people everywhere to Understand One, Believe in One and Get Together to be One..


Here is one of the latest Nirankari Song/ Geet / निरंकारी गीत


हिंदी अनुवाद

संत निरंकारी मिशन और उत्तराखंड

संत निरंकारी मिशन (जिसे यूनिवर्सल ब्रदरहुड मिशन के रूप में भी जाना जाता है) दिल्ली, भारत में स्थित एक आध्यात्मिक संगठन है।

शुरू में सिख धर्म के निरंकारवादियों की स्थापना 1840 के दशक में बाबा दयाल दास (1783-1885) और उनके शिष्यों दरबारा सिंह और रत्ता जी ने की थी। बाबा दयाल दास ने निरंकार (निराकार भगवान) के रूप में भगवान की पूजा पर जोर दिया। उनके दृष्टिकोण का मतलब मूर्तियों और कर्मकांड की अस्वीकृति था। उनके शिष्य निराकार ईश्वर की पूजा करते थे, गुरु के शबद (उपदेश) का पालन करते थे, अपने माता-पिता की सेवा करते थे, बुरी आदतों से बचते थे और काम के माध्यम से अपनी आजीविका कमाते थे। मांस खाना, शराब पीना, झूठ बोलना और धोखा देना मना था। वे एक जीवित गुरु के अधिकार को स्वीकार करते हैं जबकि सिख धर्म का मानना ​​है कि 10 वें गुरु गोबिंद सिंह के बाद, कोई और जीवित गुरु नहीं होंगे और केवल आदि ग्रंथ साहिब जी सभी सिखों के शाश्वत गुरु हैं।

1929 में, बाबा बूटा सिंह जी के नेतृत्व में आंदोलन का एक खंड, मूल निरंकारी आंदोलन के साथ-साथ मुख्यधारा के सिख धर्म से अलग हो गया और एक स्वतंत्र संप्रदाय बन गया (जो अब संत निरंकारी मिशन के नाम से जाने जाते हैं)।

संत निरंकारी मिशन खुद की पहचान “न तो एक नए धर्म और न ही एक मौजूदा धर्म के संप्रदाय के रूप में करता है, लेकिन मानव कल्याण के लिए समर्पित एक आध्यात्मिक आन्दोलन जो साधकों को एक सच्चे सच्चे गुरु (सतगुरु) की कृपा के माध्यम से भगवान का एहसास कराने में मदद करता है”। वे सिख धर्मग्रंथों के आधार पर मानकीकृत जन्म-मृत्यु-विवाह-अनुष्ठानों को मुफ्त में कराने का लक्ष्य रखते हैं

संगठन के दुनिया भर में 3000 से अधिक केंद्र और लाखों अनुयायी हैं। निम्नलिखित आंदोलन की एक संक्षिप्त समयरेखा है।

  • संगठन की स्थापना 1929 में बाबा बूटा सिंह जी ने की थी।


    बाबा बूटा सिंह जी और उनकी सम्मानित पत्नी ने केवल कुछ जरूरतों के साथ एक साधारण जीवन व्यतीत किया। उनके कोई संतान नहीं थी। भगवान के कट्टर भक्त होने के नाते, बाबा बूटा सिंह जी ने ‘वर्तमान’ के लिए जो आवश्यक था उससे परे सांसारिक आवश्यकताओं के बारे में नहीं सोचा था। बाबा बूटा सिंह जी अपना अधिकांश समय दोस्तों और अन्य परिचितों के साथ आध्यात्म पर चर्चा करने में व्यतीत करते थे

    Baba Buta Singh Ji
    बाबा बूटा सिंह जी
  • बाबा अवतार सिंह जी बाबा बूटा सिंह जी के उत्तराधिकारी बने

    बाबा अवतार सिंह जी ने बाबा बूटा सिंह जी का उत्तराधिकार किया और 1943 से 1962 की अवधि के दौरान ईश्वरीय संदेश का प्रचार किया। वह ईश्वरीय शब्द के प्रसार के माध्यम से मानव जाति के उत्थान के लिए काम करते थे।

    बाबा अवतार सिंह जी
  • बाबा गुरबचन सिंह जी तीसरे गुरु बने

    समय बीतने के साथ, भक्तों की तेजी से बढ़ती संख्या को कुछ संगठनात्मक सुधारों की आवश्यकता थी। इस उद्देश्य के लिए, बाबा जी ने 17 और 18 जुलाई, 1965 को पहला मसूरी सम्मेलन बुलाया, जिसमें आयोजकों और मिशन के प्रचारकों ने भाग लिया। प्रशासनिक संरचना को सुव्यवस्थित करने और मिशन के संदेश को फैलाने के लिए कई महत्वपूर्ण निर्णय लिए गए। इसके लिए, देश में मिशन के प्रशासनिक कार्य को चार क्षेत्रों में विभाजित किया गया था।

    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji
    बाबा गुरबचन सिंह जी

    बाबा जी ने 14, 15 और 16 मई, 1973 को दूसरा मसूरी सम्मेलन आयोजित किया। सम्मेलन मिशन के इतिहास में एक महत्वपूर्ण कड़ी बन गया क्योंकि इसमें मिशनरियों के लिए एक आचार संहिता प्रस्तावित की गयी थी।

    इस सम्मेलन में यह भी निर्णय लिया गया कि हमें किसी के आहार के कारण उससे घृणा नहीं करनी चाहिए और साथ ही साथ हमें स्वयं सभी प्रकार के नशे के सेवन से बचना चाहिए। एक अन्य निर्णय दहेज मुक्त विवाह को बढ़ावा देना और अन्य सामाजिक कार्यों में तपस्या का पालन करना था।

  • बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी चौथे गुरु बने

    तीसरे बाबा गुरुबचन सिंह जी की हत्या के बाद, उनके पुत्र बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी संगठन के प्रमुख बने और 13 मई 2016 को उनकी असामयिक मृत्यु तक ईश्वर-प्राप्ति के माध्यम से सार्वभौमिक भाईचारे के मिशन के संदेश को फैलाया।

    2005 में, उन्होंने नई दिल्ली में संत निरंकारी सरोवर परिसर में निरंकारी संग्रहालय की स्थापना की।

    Baba Hardev Singh Ji
    बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी

    बाबा जी ने इस बात पर जोर दिया कि सत्य की प्राप्ति प्रत्येक मनुष्य की मूल आवश्यकता है जो धर्म, जाति, पंथ, रंग, सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति और सांस्कृतिक विविधताओं के आधार पर सभी संघर्षों से ऊपर उठे। एक बार जब हम भगवान की एकता को समझते हैं, तो हम मानव जाति की विविधता, विविधता में एकता की सराहना करते हैं और सार्वभौमिकता की भावना के साथ रहना शुरू करते हैं। भीतर शांति और बाहर सद्भाव स्वचालित रूप से पालन करते हैं। हम भगवान और नबियों के नाम पर लड़ना बंद कर देते हैं

    13 मई 2016 को कनाडा के मॉन्ट्रियल, क्यूबेक में एक कार दुर्घटना में हरदेव सिंह जी की मृत्यु हो गई।

  • सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी मिशन का नेतृत्व करने वाली 5 वीं गुरु और पहली महिला बनीं

    परम पावन सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी, 13 मई 2016 को एक कार दुर्घटना में हरदेव सिंह जी की मृत्यु के बाद मिशन का नेतृत्व करने वाली 5 वीं गुरु और पहली महिला बनीं

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
    सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी

    सविंदर जी की प्राथमिक शिक्षा फर्रुखाबाद में हुई। इसके बाद, 1966 में उन्हें कॉन्वेंट ऑफ जीसस एंड मैरी वेवरली, मसूरी भेजा गया, जहाँ से उन्होंने 1973 में भारतीय स्कूल प्रमाणपत्र परीक्षा (सीनियर कैम्ब्रिज, सीनियर सेकेंडरी के बराबर) पास की।

    सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी हमेशा युवा पीढ़ी के लिए प्रेरणा का एक महत्वपूर्ण स्रोत थी। मिशन की ओर उन्हें आकर्षित करने और उन्हें भाग लेने के लिए राजी करने का उनका अपना आकर्षक तरीका था ।

    इस तरह, जब संत निरंकारी मिशन का नेतृत्व करने का आह्वान किया गया, तो इसके आध्यात्मिक प्रमुख के रूप में, परम पावन माता सविंदर हरदेव जी को अपनी आवश्यकताओं को अच्छी तरह से समझने का लाभ मिला। उन्होंने पहले दिन मिशन को ऊंचाइयों पर ले जाने का संकल्प लिया, जहां बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी महाराज देखना चाहते थे। वह भारत और विदेश के प्रत्येक प्रचारक और प्रबधंक को व्यक्तिगत रूप से जानती थी। उन्होंने उन्हें अपने आपसी प्रेम और सहयोग को मजबूत करने और इस पवित्र प्रयास में उनकी मदद करने के लिए कहा।

    हालाँकि, उन्होंने 5 अगस्त, 2018 को शाम 5.15 बजे अंतिम सांस ली।

  • सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा सिंह जी मिशन की वर्तमान गुरु बनीं

    17 जुलाई 2018 को, मिशन के पूर्व प्रमुख सतगुरु बाबा हरदेव सिंह और माता सविंदर हरदेव की बेटी सुदीक्षा सिंह को निरंकारी सतगुरु और संत निरंकारी मिशन के आध्यात्मिक प्रमुख के रूप में सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव के आशीर्वाद से घोषित किया गया था।

    सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा सिंह जी

    सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा जी महाराज की जन्मतिथि 1 जून 1985 है और वह इस समय इस मिशन में पूरे समर्पण और प्रतिबद्धता के साथ नेतृत्व कर रही हैं।

उत्तराखंड में निरंकारी मिशन की उपस्थिति सर्वविदित है। निरंकारी भवन के शुरुआती केंद्रों में से एक मसूरी में प्रसिद्ध कैमल बैक मार्ग पर स्थित है। इसके ऊपर की होर्डिंग में “एक को जानो, एक को मानो, एक हो जाओ” लिखा हुआ ह।

उत्तराखंड में निरंकारी मिशन के केंद्रों के कुछ स्थान निम्नलिखित हैं

  1. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, कैमल बैक रोड मसूरी, उत्तराखंड
  2. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हरिद्वार बाईपास, कालागाँव, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  3. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, 36, त्यागी रोड, गोविंद नगर, रेस कोर्स, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  4. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, गंगा नगर, ऋषिकेश, उत्तराखंड
  5. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, पंचवटी कॉलोनी, देवपुरा, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  6. संत निरंकारी भवन, बहादराबाद, औद्योगिक क्षेत्र, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  7. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, भगवानपुर, उत्तराखंड
  8. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, बिलासपुर-रुद्रपुर-हल्द्वानी रोड, रुद्रपुर, उत्तराखंड
  9. निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हल्द्वानी, गौजजली बिचली, उत्तराखंड
  10. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, गढ़ीनेगी, उत्तराखंड
  11. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, नादेही रोड, जसपुर, उत्तराखंड
  12. संत निरंकारी भवन, गुरुकुल नारसन, नरसेन कलां, उत्तराखंड
  13. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन आश्रम, देहरादून Rd, गांधी नगर, रुड़की, उत्तराखंड
  14. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, डोईवाला, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  15. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, नई टिहरी, उत्तराखंड
  16. संत निरंकारी भवन, उत्तरकाशी, उत्तराखंड
  17. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, चंबा, उनियाल गाँव, उत्तराखंड
  18. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, लक्सर, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  19. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, लाम ग्रंट, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  20. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, कंसमर्दानी मार्ग, श्रीनगर, उत्तराखंड गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड
  21. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हल्दूखाता मल्ला, उत्तराखंड
  22. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, शाहपुर, प्रेम नगर, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड

उत्तराखंड में मिशन द्वारा सामाजिक सुधार, रक्तदान शिविर, नि: शुल्क नेत्र जांच शिविर, सवास्थ्य कार्यक्रम, शिक्षा पहल, महिला और युवा सशक्तीकरण कार्यक्रम, वृक्षारोपण अभियान और स्वच्छता अभियान जैसे विभिन्न कल्याणकारी कार्य किए जाते हैं। ये गतिविधियाँ संत निरंकारी चैरिटेबल फाउंडेशन द्वारा की जाती हैं।

आशा है कि निरंकारी मिशन और इसकी चैरिटेबल फाउंडेशन द्वारा अच्छे कार्य जारी रहे और यह लोगों को हर जगह एक को समझने, एक में विश्वास करने और एक होने के लिए प्रेरित करता है।

Source of the pictures: https://nirankarifoundation.org
Research Contribution: Nirankari Bhawan Mussoorie

Summer Capital of Uttarakhand: Gairsain

In March 2020, Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat announced that Gairsain(गैरसैंण) of Chamoli district would be made the summer capital of Uttarakhand during the presentation of the budget.

CM, Shri Trivendra Singh Rawat

After coming into existence as a separate state(9th, November 2000), Uttarakhand has been talking about permanent capital for the last 20 years, but till date could not get a permanent capital. Dehradun is the state capital, but it is considered as the temporary capital of Uttarakhand. The demand to make Gairsain a capital is not new. Even during the state movement, there was a demand to make Gairsain the capital.

Map of Uttarkhand with important landmarks

It is in common knowledge that there are two administrative divisions in Uttarakhand, Kumaon and Garhwal. After the formation of the state, Dehradun, located in the Garhwal region, was made the capital, while the High Court remained in Nainital of Kumaon. Apart from this, Uttarakhand is one of the few states in the country, where there are two Raj Bhawan for the Governor – Dehradun and Nainital (In summer, the Governor stays here)

Now Uttarakhand has become the fifth state in the country which has 2 capitals. There are 3 capitals proposed in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra have 2 capitals each. Jammu and Kashmir also have 2 capital cities, but in the year 2019, it was removed from the state list and made a union territory.

People associated with the Uttarakhand Andolan and the people of the beautiful place called Gairsain especially are ecstatic about the decision.

Following are some of the interesting facts about Gairsain

  • Gairsain falls in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand and has the status of a Nagar Panchayat.

  • The word Gairsain is made up of two local dialect words. ‘Gair ‘and ‘Sain’. ‘Gair’ means the deep place in both Kumaoni and Garhwali languages ​​and the word ‘Sain’ means the plain terrain. In this way, it means a plain area in the deep. An adjoining village is also named Gair and some attribute the name Gairsain as the deep plain area at the foot of Gair Village.

  • Gairsain is about 260 kilometres from Dehradun, the temporary capital of the state. While its distance from the national capital Delhi is 450 kilometres. At the same time, the distance from Haridwar is 240 kilometres.

  • Gairsain is situated at the eastern edge of the vast Dudhatoli mountain range, located almost at the centre of the state.

  • Gairsain is just about 16 km from the Almora district border along National Highway 87. The nearest railway station to Gairsain is Ramnagar which is 150 km away. The nearest airport is Gauchar Airport, at Gauchar which is approximately 54 km.

  • In ancient Indian literature, this area has been celebrated as Kedar Kshetra.

  • According to the 2011 census, the population of Gairsain tehsil is 62,412, which includes 28,755 males and 33,657 females. While the literacy rate is 78.66%. The sex ratio here is 1,170, which is much higher than the national average.

  • Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi sat on a hunger strike 13 times to make Gairsain the capital and formation of the state of Uttarakhand from 1997 onwards. He united the people of the hills and his last fast (in Adibadari) lasted for 38 days. He died in August 2004 during this fast.
Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi

The picturesque town of Gairsain is emerging as a tourist destination since it is a part of the major route connecting Garhwal and Kumaon region. It is also the site of the source of the Ramganga River flowing near the Dudhatoli mountain. The famous tourist attractions located in and around Gairsain are the Nanda Devi National Park, Vasundhara Falls, Adi Badri, Vriddha Badri, and Yog Dhyan Badri. 

Gairsain, the summer capital of Uttarakhand

As the summer capital of Uttarakhand, it will attract even more tourists. One planning a trip to Uttarakhand should visit this place and immerse in the beauty of Gairsain. 

A Geographical view of Uttarakhand

गंगा यमुना तेरा आँचल दिव्य हिमालय तेरा शीष
सब धर्मों की छाया तुझ पर चार धाम देते आशीष,
श्रीबद्री केदारनाथ हैं कलियर हेमकुण्ड अतिपावन।
अभिनन्दन! अभिनन्दन!
उत्तराखण्ड देवभूमि मातृभूमि शत शत वन्दन अभिनन्दन॥

Uttarakhand State Song (link)

This write up will present various aspects of the state of Uttarakhand’s Geography.

The Peaks

Nanda Devi Peak

Nanda Devi is the third highest mountain in India after K2 and Kangchenjunga. It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world. Nanda Devi main summit is located at Chamoli District and Nanda Devi East is in Pithoragarh-Chamoli.

Elevation : 7,816 m

Nanda devi peak
Peak of Nanda Devi

History behind the name : Nanda Devi is the incarnation of Mother Durga and the consort of Lord Shiva Shankar and is worshiped as the main goddess of the mountainous region. She is worshipped as the Isht Devi of the hills and also as the “destroyer of evil”.

The genesis of Nanda Devi is not very clear however. Folk lyrics suggest that Nanda was a princess of the Chanda dynasty of Almora.

The Goddess finds mention in Sanskrit literature (Srimad Bhagvatam or Bhagavata Purana). Peaks together are also referred as peaks of the goddesses Nanda and Sunanda and they are worshipped together as twins in Uttarakhand.

Some very old statues found in Mathura show Goddess Eknansha who was subsequently regarded as Nanda. Naini (of Nainital) and Naina (of Himachal Pradesh) also appear to be variants of the same Goddess.

Nanda Devi is one of the most revered goddess of the state and the peak and its route is both a adventure trek and a pilgrimage destination.

Kamet Peak

Kamet peak lies in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. After Nanda Devi, it is considered to be the second tallest peak in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

Elevation : 7,756 m 

Kamet Peak
Kamet Peak

History behind the name : Kamet or Kang-med is a Tibetan word meaning “Glacier Fire”. This being the highest peak in the region, it catches the first rays of the rising sun and the last rays of the setting sun, lighting the ice on the top like a huge mass of fire.

Kamet is surrounded by three principal neighboring or subsidiary peaks:

  • Mukut Parbat, 7,242 m, northwest of Kamet;
  • Abi Gamin, 7,355m, north-northeast of Kamet;
  • Mana, 7,272m, south-southeast of Kamet.

Chaukhamba I Peak

Chaukhamba I is the main summit and the highest peak in the Gangotri Group of the Garhwal Himalaya, It has four mountain summits other are known as Chaukhamba II,Chaukhamba III and Chaukhamba IV.

Elevation : 7138 m 

Chaukhamba I peak

History behind the name :  ‘Chaukhamba’ literally means ‘four pillars’ and its four impressive peaks as following are the reasons behind the nomenclature.

  • Chaukamba I : 7,138 m;
  • Chaukamba II : 7,070 m;
  • Chaukamba III : 6,995 m;
  • Chaukamba IV :6,854 m.

Trisul I Peak

Trisul is a group of three Himalayan mountain peaks of western Kumaun, with the highest (Trisul I). The Trishul group forms the southwest corner of the ring of peaks enclosing the Nanda Devi Sanctuary, about 15 kilometres (9 mi) west-southwest of Nanda Devi itself.

Elevation : 7120m 

Trishul Peaks

History behind the name :The three peaks resemble a trident – in Hindi/Sanskrit, Trishula, trident, is the weapon of lord Shiva as shown below.

Trishul of Lord Shiva

The Passes

Lipulekh Pass : It lies at the tri-junction of Uttarakhand (India), Tibet (China) and Nepal borders. This pass is used by pilgrims to Kailash-Mansarowar Yatra.

The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) has completed construction of 80 km road stretch that connects Dharchula to Lipulekh (China Border). At present, the travel to Kailash Mansarovar takes around two-three weeks through Sikkim or Nepal. Lipulekh route had a trek of 90 Km through high altitude terrain and making the trek even more difficult for the elderly. This journey can now be completed by vehicles after the construction of this route.

Representation of road constructed by the BRO from Dharchula to Lipulekh (Map not to scale)

The path and distance from Lipulekh pass to kailash Mansarovar and Mansarovar Lake is depicted below. Distance between Lipulekh and Mansarovar lake is roughly 70km and Lipulekh and Mount Kailash is over a 100km.

lipulekh to mansarovar distance
Representation of the distance between the Lipulekh pass to the Mount Kailash and lake Mansarovar (Map not to scale)

Mana Pass: It connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. It is situated at an elevation of 5610m, North of the holy place of Badrinath. It Remains closed in the winter season (Nov – Apr).

Mangsha Dhura Pass and Lampiya Dhura: High Himalayan passes of Mangsha Dhura(5,490 M) and Lampiya Dhura(5,530 M) are situated in Kuthi valley situated in the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand state of India.

Niti Pass: The Niti Pass located at 5800 mtrs connects India with Tibet. During winters, Niti village and valley is covered with heavy snow.

Traill’s Pass: It is situated at the end of the Pindari glacier and connects the Pindari valley to Milam valley. This pass is very steep and rugged. It is located between Nanda Devi and Nanda Kot peaks in the Uttarakhand state in the districts of Pithoragarh and Bageshwar in India

Other important passes like Kungribingri Pass and Kiogad Pass are shown in the map below.

Passes from the state of Uttarakhand in the physical map of Uttarakhand
Passes from the state of Uttarakhand

The Rivers

The Rivers and the Prayags (confluences)

Check this space for more about the origin and legends surrounding these great rivers : https://uttarakhand.life/blog/places/religious/

The Minerals

Mineral NameDistrict Uses
Barites (BaSO4)Dehra Dun, ChamoliPaint Industry, Drilling mud, As a filler in paper industry
Base MetalsAlmora, Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Nainital, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, PithoragarhCopper : Electric Industry, Manufacturing Of containers, Manufacturing of Alloys, Aero planes
Lead : Manufacturing of strong Batteries, Paint Industry, Photo cells, Ammunitions, Telephone Industry, Manufacturing of Alloys, Soldering
Zinc : Manufacturing of Alloys, Electric cell, Chemicals, Paint Industry
Placer GoldNainital, PauriOrnaments, Pharmaceutical Industry
Primary GoldChamoli, Pithoragarh, NainitalOrnaments, Pharmaceutical Industry
GraphiteAlmora, PauriWriting Materials,
Lubricant Industry,
Refractory Industry,
Nuclear Reactors,
Batteries Industry,
Graphene Sheets
GypsumDehra Dun, Nainital, Pauri, TehriPaint Industry, Agriculture Industry
LimestoneDehra Dun, Pithoragarh, Tehri, NainitalCement Industry, Steel Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry
MagnesiteAlmora, Pithoragarh, ChamoliCement Industry, Steel Industry as blast Furnace Bricks, Metal Industry
MarbleDehra DunBuilding material, Decorative show Pieces
PhosphoriteDehra Dun, Tehri, NainitalAgriculture Industry, Chemical Industry
Silica sandUttarkashiGlass Industry, Pharmaceutical Industry, Ceramic Industry, Rubber Industry
SoapstoneAlmora, Chamoli, PithoragarhCosmetic Industry
Sulphur and sulphur springsChamoli, Dehra DunPharmaceutical Industry, Cosmetic Industry, Chemical Industry
TungstenAlmora, ChamoliElectric Industry
UraniumChamoliNuclear power plants, Weapons
Table showing the minerals present at various locations in Uttarakhand

The Agriculture

About 90 per cent of the population depends on agriculture. The total cultivated area in the state is 7,67,459 hectare. In hilly areas Terrace Farming is prevalent.

Terrace Farming in Ranikhet

Agricultural land under irrigation is 5,61,733 hectare. The state has excellent potential for hydropower generation. There are a number of hydroelectric projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu, Gauri, Kosi and Kali generating electricity.

The Transport

Roads : The total length of metalled roads is 33,914 km. The length of PWD roads is 25,665 km. The length of roads built by local bodies is 2,674 km.

Railways : The main railway stations are Dehradun, Haridwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udhamsingh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam.

Aviation : There are air strips at Jolly Grant (Dehradun) and Pantnagar (Udham Singh Nagar). Air strips at Naini-Seni (Pithoragarh), Gauchar (Chamoli) and Chinyalisaur (Uttarkashi) are under construction. Pawan Hans Ltd. is also operating helicopter service from Rudraprayag to Kedarnath for pilgrims.

Jolly Grant Airport Dehradun

The richness of the Geography of Uttarakhand can be seen in this article. Let us all join hands to sustainably preserve this rich Geography.

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