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The history of India-Nepal relations

THE COMPLETE STORY OF INDIA & NEPAL

India and Nepal are two nations which enjoy a friendly relation since time immemorial. Nepal shares border with the states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim and West Bengal in India. Lets look at the historical account of the relationship between the two great nations of Nepal and India from the ancient era till now.

The Ancient Era

Nepal’s rich prehistory consists mainly of the legendary traditions of the Newar, the indigenous community of Nepal Valley (or Kathmandu Valley). The mention and references of the Nepal Valley are found in the ancient Indian scriptures, suggesting that it was closely related culturally and politically to the Gangetic Plain at least 2,500 years ago.  

The Mauryan Empire under the Great Ashoka
(From “Historical Atlas of India,” by Charles Joppen (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1907))

The Kirantis started ruling the Kathmandu valley around the 7th or 8th Century B.C. Their famous King Yalumber is even mentioned in the ‘Mahabharata’ as he is said to have led his troops to the epic battle.
Gautam Buddha who attained enlightenment in India’s Bodh Gaya was born in Lumbini Nepal. The Ashoka Pillar in Lumbini is one of the 3rd Century stone pillars built under the reign of Emperor Ashoka. It was erected as a mark of respect by Ashoka after he visited Lord Buddha’s place of birth.

Licchavi was an ancient kingdom on the Indian subcontinent, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750 CE. They overthrew the Kirantis. The Licchavi clan originated from Vaishali and Muzaffarpur in modern northern BiharIndia and ruled over the Kathmandu Valley.

They built the famous Changu Narayan Temple near Bhaktapur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site during their rein. They developed very good relations with Indian kingdoms as well the Tibetan kingdoms. 

The Medieval Era

Mallas ruled over Nepal after Licchavis. The Great Malla ruler Jaya Sthiti (who ruled from 1382-95) introduced the first legal and social code strongly influenced by contemporary Hindu principles

After the death of King Yaksha Malla, the valley was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu (Kantipur), Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon) and Patan (Lalitpur). Each of these states controlled territory in the surrounding hill areas, with particular importance attached to the trade routes northward to Tibet and southward to India that were vital to the valley’s economy. There were also around 46 small principalities in the western and eastern hill areas. One among these was the kingdom of Gorkha ruled by a Shah king.

By the 16th century virtually all these principalities were ruled by dynasties who had fled to the hills in the wake of the brutal Islamic invasions in northern India.

An ambitious and powerful Gorkha King named Prithvi Narayan Shah embarked on a conquering mission that led to the defeat of all the kingdoms in the valley. He decided shifted his capital to Kathmandu, and established the Shah dynasty which ruled unified Kingdom of Nepal from the late 18th century to as latest as the year 2008.

King Prithvi Narayan Shah : One of the Greatest Kings of the history of the subcontinent

He proclaimed the newly unified Kingdom of Nepal as Asal Hindustan (“Real Land of Hindus”) due to North India being ruled by the Islamic Mughal rulers. The self proclamation was done to enforce Hindu social code Dharmashastra over his reign and refer to his country as being inhabitable for Hindus. He also referred to the rest of Northern India as Mughlan (Country of Mughals) and called the region infiltrated by Muslim foreigners.

The Modern Era

King Prithvi Narayan Shah died in the year 1775. His successors shared his vision of a unified state, and within fifteen years Gorkha troops had conquered other areas in Nepal, bringing the whole country, from Sikkim to Karnali, under Gorkha rule.

The Gorkha army invaded Kumaon Kingdom (Modern day Uttarakhand) and occupied it in 1790–91. Then the Gorkha army invaded Garhwal Kingdom (Modern day Uttarakhand) and occupied it in 1804 after defeating its King Pradyuman Shah. In 1806, the Gorkha army absorbed all the small kingdoms like Sirmudh state, Hindur and Besahar lying across the Garhwal and up to Satluj River. In this way, the Gorkhas occupied the hilly regions such as Nainital, Almora and Dehradun without crossing the Satluj River. However, when the Gorkhas crossed the Satluj river, the Gorkha’s attack on Kangra and siege of Kangra Fort west of Satluj river was repulsed by the Kangra king with help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab in 1809.

The Greater Nepal

Gorkhas made considerable progress, but successive setbacks in wars with China and Tibet (1788–92), with the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab (1809), with British India (1814–16), and again with Tibet (1854–56) irked Nepal and set the present boundaries of the kingdom.

Anglo-Nepalese War & the Treaty of Sagauli

The Anglo-Nepalese War started on the 1st of November 1814 and carried on till 4th of March 1816. It is also known as the Gurkha War, and it was fought between the Kingdom of Gorkha (Nepal) and the East India Company (British India). The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816, which ceded some Nepalese controlled territory to the EIC. By this treaty the Gorkhas lost territories occupied by them West of River Kali including Almora, Mussoorie, Nainital and Simla and 4000 square miles of Sikkim territory to the East of present day Nepal to the British.

Kalapani-Limpiyadhura is located at the northwestern corner of Nepal, where the frontiers of Nepal, India, and China meet. This area is situated in the eastern part of the Kali River, as drawn on the historical maps published before 1860. According to the Treaty of Sugauli, the Kali River is the western boundary of Nepal with India. The boundary of the Kali river is delimitated by Article 5 of the treaty. It states

“the Rajas of Nepal renounces for himself, his heirs, and successors, all claim to or connection with the countries lying to the west of the river Kali and engages never to have any concern with those countries or the inhabitants thereof.”

Treaty of Sagauli

Hence, the origin of the Kali River should be the northwestern border corner of Nepal with India and China as a tri-point. It, however, made no mention of a ridgeline and subsequent maps of the areas drawn by British surveyors showed the source of the Kali river at different places. We will discuss this dispute later in this article.

The Nepalese–Tibetan(China) War was fought from 1855 to 1856 in Tibet between the forces of the Tibetan government (Ganden Phodrang, then under administrative rule of the Qing dynasty) and the invading Nepalese army, resulting in huge loss of money and manpower for Nepal. In 1856 the war ended with the Treaty of Thapathali.

Development post India’s independence in 1947

  • The Maoist revolution in China in 1949, followed by the unethical takeover of Tibet

    It created deep misgivings in Nepal, and India was invited to set up 18 border posts along the Nepal-Tibet border. The westernmost post was at Tinkar Pass, about 6 km further east of Lipulekh.

    Tinkar Pass
  • Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1950

    India and Nepal

    India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the signing ten articles treaty of 1950, “Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship”.

    The treaty allows free movement of people and goods between the two nations and a close relationship and collaboration on matters of defense and foreign policy.

    This allows the reciprocity for Nepalese and Indian citizens to move freely across the border without passport or visa, live and work in either country and own property or conduct trade or business in either country.

    The Treaty has enabled Nepal to overcome the disadvantages of being a land-locked country, though some of the Nepali citizens are against the treaty.

  • Every changing dynamics of India-Nepal and China relationship

    In 1953, India and China identified Lipulekh Pass for both pilgrims and border trade. After the 1962 war, pilgrimage through Lipulekh resumed in 1981, and border trade, in 1991.

    In 1961, King of Nepal Mahendra visited Beijing to sign the China-Nepal Boundary Treaty that defines the zero point in the west, just north of Tinkar Pass.

  • Retreat

    By 1969, India had withdrawn its border posts from Nepali territory. The base camp for Lipulekh remained at Kalapani, less than 10 km west of Lipulekh. In their respective maps, both countries showed Kalapani as the origin of Kali river and as part of their territory. After 1979, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police has manned the Lipulekh Pass.

  • In actual practice, life for the locals (Byansis) remained unchanged given the open border and free movement of people and goods.

  • The strengthening India-Nepal relations

    Multiple Trade and Transit Treaties were signed between India and Nepal as trade ties strengthened between the two countries in the 1970s and the 1980s.

    The first being in 1971. 1978 also saw an increase in the number of joint investments between Indian and Nepalese firms, all signalling further cooperation between the two nations.

  • Love Hate Love Relationship

    The tipping point would come in 1989, with the failure to negotiate a new trade treaty and the purchase of weaponry from China, leading to the expiration of vital trade and transit of goods treaties between India and Nepal, placing massive strain on Nepal’s economy and on the India-Nepal relations.

    Parliamentary democracy got restored in Nepal in 1990 and after visits and meets in the early 90s between Indian and Nepalese leaders, trade ties resumed again with the signing of new treaties.

  • Political instability in Nepal and its after effects

    In February 1996, the Maoist parties declared a People’s War against monarchy and the elected government.

    On 1st June 2001, a horrific tragedy wiped out the entire royal family of Nepal including King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya along with most of their closest relatives. With only King Birendra’s brother, Gyanendra and his family surviving, he was crowned king.

    King Gyanendra abided by the elected government’s rule for a short time, but then dismissed the elected Parliament to wield absolute power. In April 2006, another People’s Movement was launched jointly by the democratic parties focusing on Kathmandu, which led to a 19-day curfew imposed by the king. With the movement not cowering down and ignoring even the curfew, King Gyanendra eventually relinquished his power and reinstated Parliament.

    In 2006, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist Chairman Prachanda signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) 2006, committing to democracy and peace for the progress of the country and people.

    And on 28th May 2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a Federal Democratic Republic, abolishing the 240 year-old monarchy. 

    Under King Gyanendra, China delivered arms to Nepal after India had stopped its weapons supply once the King seized power. India normalized its relations with Nepal once again after the King Gyanendra was removed from power.

    In 2008, Indo-Nepal ties got a further boost with an agreement to resume water talks after a 4-year hiatus. The Nepalese Water Resources Secretary Shanker Prasad Koirala said the Nepal-India Joint Committee on Water Resources meet decided to start the reconstruction of the breached Koshi embankment after the water level went down. During the Nepal PM’s visit to New Delhi in September the two Prime Ministers expressed satisfaction at the age-old close, cordial and extensive relationships between their states and expressed their support and co-operation to further consolidate the relationship.

    In 2010 India extended a Line of credit worth US$50 million & 80,000 tonnes of foodgrains. Furthermore, a three-tier mechanism at the level of ministerial, secretary and technical levels will be built to push forward discussions on the development of water resources between the two sides. Politically, India acknowledged a willingness to promote efforts towards peace in Nepal. India’s then External affairs minister Pranab Mukherjee promised the Nepali Prime Minister Prachanda that he would “extend all possible help for peace and development.”

  • Recent Developments

    Currently, India remains the largest foreign investor in Nepal, is providing aid and is jointly constructing hydel power projects with Nepal, some of which was announced during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s 2014 visit to Kathmandu, with the extension of a $1 billion credit line.

    When a devastating 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal, the Government of India swiftly dispatched National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) teams and special aircrafts with rescue and relief materials to Nepal. The total Indian relief assistance to Nepal amounted to approx. US$ 67 million. At an International Donors’ Conference organized by the Government of Nepal in Kathmandu on 25 June 2015 towards post-earthquake reconstruction, India announced Indian assistance of US$ 1 billion to Nepal, one-fourth of which would be as grant.

    There have been initiatives to promote people-to-people contacts in the area of art & culture, academics and media with different local bodies of Nepal. India has signed three sister-city agreements for twinning of Kathmandu-Varanasi, Lumbini-Bodhgaya and Janakpur-Ayodhya.

    The relationship took a nosedive in 2015 when India first got blamed for interfering in the Constitution-drafting in Nepal and an “unofficial blockade” by India generated widespread resentment against it in Nepal. It reinforced the notion that Nepali nationalism and anti-Indianism were two sides of the same coin. Anti-India Sentiment in Nepal is largely politically motivated and China backed as it is wrongly perceived as India’s backing to Monarchy.

    But India is trying its best to improve its relations with Nepal. For eg. in 2019 Prime Ministers of India and Nepal have jointly inaugurated a cross-border petroleum products pipeline. Pipeline carries petroleum products from Motihari in India to Amlekhgunj in Nepal. This is South Asia’s first cross-border petroleum products pipeline.

    This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 1568193989_Image5.jpg
  • China created nuisance in the region

    Wary of these developments, China too has has made recent efforts to maintain a presence in Nepal, with investment in the Araniko Highway that connects Kathmandu with the Nepal-China border and facilitates easier trade and movement of goods between the two countries. Hundreds of millions of dollars have also been pledged to Nepal by China for infrastructure and even military aid.

    China has been at the forefront of aggressive foreign policy stances. It has resorted to Cheque book diplomacy (Cheque book diplomacy is a type of diplomacy based on debt carried out in the bilateral relations between countries. It involves one creditor country intentionally extending excessive credit to another debtor country with the alleged intention of extracting economic or political concessions from the debtor country when it becomes unable to honour its debt obligations) with many countries like Pakistan and Srilanka in the subcontinent. India is wary of the fact that in future the Debt Trap of the Dragon can engulf the peaceful nation of Nepal.

    Increasing Chinese presence in Nepal is one of the major concern for India. China’s move to extend the rail link to its border with Nepal can reduce Kathmandu’s dependence on India.

    Fundamentally Chinese government is building up anti-India sentiments in Nepal. China recently saved the Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli or KP Oli the current PM of Nepal’s government and just after that KP Oli stepped up the protests and Anti-India sentiments in Nepal. The Nepal Communist Party government is being saved by the Chinese Communist Party and communist ideology is anarchist in itself, thus a big reason to worry for India and common Nepalese citizens.

    One of the ideological fathers of communism MAO ZEDONG said “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun“. This is what is followed by the communists all over the world including Nepal and China.

    Is it not against the Sovereignty of Nepal

    China has occupied peaceful Tibet in the past, shows aggression in the South China Sea against Vietnam, Indonesia and even its recent ally Philippines, occupied Hambantota port of Srilanka, building up its military presence in the Indian Ocean, troubling the countries like India, Australia, Japan & South Korea and may hurt the peaceful nation of Nepal eventually. China’s state sponsored media already shows the pride of Nepal ie. The MOUNT EVEREST as Chinese territory.

    China claiming Mount Everest

    Nepal’s assent for “One Belt One Region” (OBOR) initiative of China is viewed by India with suspicion and an attempt of a debt trap.

  • The Kalapani Dispute in 2020

    The discrepancy in locating the source of the Kali river led to boundary disputes between India and Nepal, with each country producing maps supporting their own claims.

    India’s Stand: Kali river originates in springs well below the Lipu-lekh pass, and the Sugauli Treaty does not demarcate the area north of these streams. The administrative and revenue records of the nineteenth century also show that Kalapani was on the Indian side, and counted as part of Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand.

    India’ Defence Minister recently inaugurated a motorable link road that connects India and China, significantly reducing the time of Kailash Mansarovar Yatra. The road passes through territory at the Lipulekh pass that Nepal claims as its own territory.

    Representation of road constructed by the BRO from Dharchula to Lipulekh (Map not to scale)
    Representation of road constructed by the BRO from Dharchula to Lipulekh (Map not to scale)
    lipulekh to mansarovar distance
    lipulekh to mansarovar distance

    China and Nepal reached a border agreement in 1961. Article 1 in the agreement describes the western extremity of the China-Nepal border and this conforms to the alignment claimed by India.

    India and China concluded an agreement in 1954 for trade and transit between India and Tibet and among the six border passes listed for the purpose, Lipulekh was included. There was no protest from the Nepali side. (But Nepal was a monarchy at that time and thus Nepal does’nt consider it a valid ground)

    The first time that Nepal protested formally was in 2015 when India and China signed an MOU for conducting border trade between the countries through Lipulekh Pass. So the protests from Nepal may be fabricated by the third party here.

    Part of India’s new official map

    Nepal’s Stand: Kali river originates from a stream at Limpiyadhura, north-west of Lipu Lekh. Thus Kalapani, and Limpiyadhura, and Lipu Lekh, fall to the east of the river and are part of Nepal’s Dharchula district. Lipulekh was deleted from the country’s map by the kings to get favours from India. The territory of Kalapani was offered to India by King Mahendra after the 1962 India-China war who wanted to help India’s security concerns due to perceived lingering Chinese threats. Kalapani was not a part of Nepal-India dispute. (But this sector back then was not a disputed section as it is today and China was not as powerful back then as it is today.)

    Earlier, Nepal had protested strongly against India, when India published a new map which showed the region of Kalapani as part of the Indian territory. Nepal had also expressed displeasure on the 2015 agreement between India and China for using the Lipulekh pass for trade, without consulting Nepal.

    Part of Nepal’s new map
    Limpiyadhura, Lipulekh and Kalapani in the Map

    In the 1980s, the two sides set up the Joint Technical Level Boundary Working Group to delineate the boundary. The group demarcated everything except Kalapani and Susta area(dispute on the India (Bihar state)-Nepal border). Officially, Nepal brought the issue of Kalapani before India in 1998. Both sides agreed to demarcate the outstanding areas (including Kalpani) by 2002 at the prime ministerial level talk held in 2000. But that has not happened yet.

    India and Nepal should try to resolve the boundary dispute at the earliest so that no third party can take advantage of the tensions and disturb the harmonious relation between the two ancient nations.

Way Forward?

The issue of Kalapani is complex. The maps before 1857 show the areas as Nepalese and post that show it as Indian in the British Surveys. King Mahendra’s intentions and offer can not be judged looking at the present day situation. So both the countries should sit together and discuss the border issues and avoid escalating the tensions. The area in dispute can be declared as a common area between the two nations. The issues have to be solved quickly to prevent Nepal from going into the Chinese control just like Tibet. The person to person contact between Nepalese and Indian people should be strengthened and Nepalese common people should be made aware about the ill intentions and aggressive nature of the dragon before it is too late.

The two countries not only share an open border and unhindered movement of people, but they also have close bonds through marriages and familial ties, popularly known as Roti-Beti ka Rishta. Hope it continues that way for the generations to come and cooperation grows in the field of defense, culture and sports with great cricketing talent like Sandeep Lamichhane and football talent like Sagar Thapa coming up in Nepal.

Sant Nirankari Mission and Uttarakhand

The Sant Nirankari Mission (also known as Universal Brotherhood Mission) is a spiritual organisation based in Delhi, India.

The Nirankaris, initially an offshoot of Sikhism, was founded in the 1840s by Baba Dayal Das (1783-1885) and his disciples Darbara Singh and Ratta Ji. Baba Dayal Das emphasized the worship of God as Nirankar (formless God). His approach meant a rejection of idols and ritualism. His disciples were to worship the formless God, obey the shabad (preaching) of the Guru, serve their parents, avoid bad habits and earn their livelihood through work. Eating meat, drinking liquor, lying and cheating were forbidden. They accept authority of a living Guru whereas other sects in Sikhism believe that after 10th Guru Gobind Singh, no more living Gurus will be there and only Adi Granth Sahib ji is the eternal Guru of all Sikhs.

In 1929, one segment of the movement led by Baba Buta Singh Ji, now known as the Sant Nirankari Mission, disassociated itself from the original Nirankari movement as well as mainstream Sikhism and became an independent sect.

The Sant Nirankari Mission identifies itself as “neither a new religion nor a sect of an existing religion, but an all-embracing spiritual movement dedicated to human welfare by helping seekers realize God through the grace of a living true master (Satguru)”. They aim for standardized birth-death-marriage-rituals based on Sikh scripture, but free of cost.

The organization has more than 3000 centers and millions of followers across the world. Following is a brief timeline of the movement.

  • The organization was established in 1929 by Baba Buta Singh Ji.

    Baba Buta Singh Ji and his esteemed wife led a simple life having few demands. They had no children. Being a staunch devotee of the God, Baba Buta Singh Ji gave little thought to worldly requirements beyond what was necessary for the ‘present’. Baba Buta Singh Ji would spend most of his time in discussing spiritualism with friends and other acquaintances.

    Baba Buta Singh Ji
    Baba Buta Singh Ji
  • Baba Avtar Singh Ji succeeded Baba Buta Singh Ji

    Baba Avtar Singh Ji succeeded Baba Buta Singh Ji and preached the divine message during the period from 1943 to 1962. He was all out for the uplift of mankind through dissemination of the divine word. 

    Baba Avtar Singh Ji
  • Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji became the 3rd Guru

    With the passage of time, the fast growing number of devotees needed some organizational reforms. For this purpose, Baba Ji convened the First Mussoorie Conference on July 17 and 18, 1965, which was attended by the organizers and the preachers of the Mission. A number of important decisions were taken to streamline the administrative outfit and to spread message of Mission. To this end, the administrative work of the mission in the country was divided into four zones.

    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji
    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji

    Baba Ji convened the Second Mussoorie Conference on May 14th, 15th and 16th, 1973. The Conference turned out to be a watershed in the history of the Mission as it proposed a code of conduct for the missionaries. It was also decided at this conference that while we may not hate others on account of their diet-habits, we ourselves should abstain from the use of all kinds of intoxicants. Another decision was to promote dowry free marriages and observe austerity in other social functions.

  • Baba Hardev Singh Ji became the 4th Guru

    After the assassination of third Baba Gurubachan Singh ji, his son Baba Hardev Singh ji succeeded as the head of the organisation and spread the Mission’s message of universal brotherhood through God-realization until his untimely death on 13 May 2016.

    In 2005, he established the Nirankari Museum in Sant Nirankari Sarovar complex in New Delhi.

    Baba Hardev Singh Ji
    Baba Hardev Singh Ji

    Baba Ji emphasized that realisation of truth is the basic need of every human being to rise above all conflicts based on religion, caste, creed, colour, socio-economic status and cultural diversities. Once we understand the oneness of God, we appreciate the oneness of mankind, the unity in diversity and start living with the spirit of universal brotherhood. Peace within and harmony outside follow automatically. We cease to fight over the names of God and prophets.

    Hardev Singh ji died on 13 May 2016 in a car accident near Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  • Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji became the 5th Guru and the first woman to lead the Mission

    Her Holiness Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji, succeeded Baba Hardev Singh Ji Maharaj as the Spiritual Head of the Sant Nirankari Mission following his sudden merger into the Almighty Nirankar in a car crash in Canada on May 13, 2016.

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji

    Savinder Ji’s primary education took place in Farrukhabad. Thereafter, in 1966 she was sent to an Irish institution, the Convent of Jesus and Mary in Waverly, Mussoorie from where she passed the Indian School Certificate Examination (Senior Cambridge, equivalent to Senior Secondary), in 1973.

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji was always an important source of inspiration for the younger generation. She had her own pleasant way to attract them towards the Mission and persuade them to take part in various activities, rising above all kinds of worldly considerations normally baffling the modern youth.

    In this way, when called upon to lead the Sant Nirankari Mission, as its Spiritual Head, Her Holiness Mata Savinder Hardev Ji had the advantage of understanding its needs thoroughly. She pledged on the very first day to take the Mission to the heights where Baba Hardev Singh Ji Maharaj wanted to see. She knew every Pracharak and Prabandhak in India and abroad personally. She asked them to strengthen their mutual love and cooperation and help her in this pious endeavour.

    She, however, breathed her last at about 5.15 pm on August 5, 2018.

  • Satguru Mata Sudiksha Singh Ji became the current Guru of the Mission

     On 17 July 2018, Sudiksha Singh, daughter of former head of the mission Satguru Baba Hardev Singh and Mata Savinder Hardev, was declared as Nirankari Satguru and the Spiritual Head of Sant Nirankari Mission with the blessing of Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev.

    Satguru Mata Sudiksha Ji Maharaj

    The birth date of Satguru Mata Sudiksha Ji Maharaj is 1st of June 1985 and she is currently leading the mission at this young age with complete dedication and commitment.

Presence of the Nirankari Mission in Uttarakhand is well known. One of the earliest centres of Nirankari Bhawan was in Mussoorie located on the famous Camel’s Back Road. The hoarding on the top of it says एक को जानो, एक को मानो, एक हो जाओ which means Understand One, Believe in One and Get Together to be One.

Following are some of the locations of the centers of the Nirankari Mission in Uttarakhand

  1. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan,Camel’s Back Road Mussoorie, Uttarakhand
  2. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Haridwar Bypass, Kalagaon, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  3. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, 36, Tyagi Rd, Govind Nagar, Race Course, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  4. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Ganga Nagar, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand
  5. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Panchwati Colony, Devpura, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  6. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Bahadrabad, Industrial Area, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  7. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Bhagwanpur, Uttarakhand
  8. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Bilaspur-Rudrapur-Haldwani Rd, Rudrapur, Uttarakhand
  9. Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Haldwani, Gaujajali Bichli, Uttarakhand
  10. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Garhinegi, Uttarakhand
  11. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Nadehi Road, Jaspur, Uttarakhand
  12. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Gurukul Narsan, Narsen Kalan, Uttarakhand
  13. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan Ashram, Dehradun Rd, Gandhi Nagar, Roorkee, Uttarakhand
  14. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Doiwala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
  15. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, New Tehri, Uttarakhand
  16. Sant Nirankari Bhawan, Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand
  17. Sant Nirankari Satsang Bhawan, Chamba, Uniyal Gaon, Uttarakhand
  18. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Laksar, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  19. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Lam Grunt, Haridwar, Uttarakhand
  20. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Kansmardani Marg, Srinagar, Uttarakhand Garhwal, Uttarakhand
  21. Sant nirankari satsang bhawan, Haldukhata Malla, Uttarakhand
  22. Sant Nirnkari Satsang Bhawan, Shahpur, Prem Nagar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Various welfare activities are performed by the group in Uttarakhand like Social Reforms, Blood Donation Camps, Free Eye checkup Camps, Heath Care programs, Education initiatives, Women and Youth empowerment programs, Tree plantation drives and Cleanliness drives. These activities are performed by the Sant Nirankari Charitable Foundation.

Hope the good works by the Nirankari Mission and its charitable foundation continues and inspire people everywhere to Understand One, Believe in One and Get Together to be One..


Here is one of the latest Nirankari Song/ Geet / निरंकारी गीत


हिंदी अनुवाद

संत निरंकारी मिशन और उत्तराखंड

संत निरंकारी मिशन (जिसे यूनिवर्सल ब्रदरहुड मिशन के रूप में भी जाना जाता है) दिल्ली, भारत में स्थित एक आध्यात्मिक संगठन है।

शुरू में सिख धर्म के निरंकारवादियों की स्थापना 1840 के दशक में बाबा दयाल दास (1783-1885) और उनके शिष्यों दरबारा सिंह और रत्ता जी ने की थी। बाबा दयाल दास ने निरंकार (निराकार भगवान) के रूप में भगवान की पूजा पर जोर दिया। उनके दृष्टिकोण का मतलब मूर्तियों और कर्मकांड की अस्वीकृति था। उनके शिष्य निराकार ईश्वर की पूजा करते थे, गुरु के शबद (उपदेश) का पालन करते थे, अपने माता-पिता की सेवा करते थे, बुरी आदतों से बचते थे और काम के माध्यम से अपनी आजीविका कमाते थे। मांस खाना, शराब पीना, झूठ बोलना और धोखा देना मना था। वे एक जीवित गुरु के अधिकार को स्वीकार करते हैं जबकि सिख धर्म का मानना ​​है कि 10 वें गुरु गोबिंद सिंह के बाद, कोई और जीवित गुरु नहीं होंगे और केवल आदि ग्रंथ साहिब जी सभी सिखों के शाश्वत गुरु हैं।

1929 में, बाबा बूटा सिंह जी के नेतृत्व में आंदोलन का एक खंड, मूल निरंकारी आंदोलन के साथ-साथ मुख्यधारा के सिख धर्म से अलग हो गया और एक स्वतंत्र संप्रदाय बन गया (जो अब संत निरंकारी मिशन के नाम से जाने जाते हैं)।

संत निरंकारी मिशन खुद की पहचान “न तो एक नए धर्म और न ही एक मौजूदा धर्म के संप्रदाय के रूप में करता है, लेकिन मानव कल्याण के लिए समर्पित एक आध्यात्मिक आन्दोलन जो साधकों को एक सच्चे सच्चे गुरु (सतगुरु) की कृपा के माध्यम से भगवान का एहसास कराने में मदद करता है”। वे सिख धर्मग्रंथों के आधार पर मानकीकृत जन्म-मृत्यु-विवाह-अनुष्ठानों को मुफ्त में कराने का लक्ष्य रखते हैं

संगठन के दुनिया भर में 3000 से अधिक केंद्र और लाखों अनुयायी हैं। निम्नलिखित आंदोलन की एक संक्षिप्त समयरेखा है।

  • संगठन की स्थापना 1929 में बाबा बूटा सिंह जी ने की थी।


    बाबा बूटा सिंह जी और उनकी सम्मानित पत्नी ने केवल कुछ जरूरतों के साथ एक साधारण जीवन व्यतीत किया। उनके कोई संतान नहीं थी। भगवान के कट्टर भक्त होने के नाते, बाबा बूटा सिंह जी ने ‘वर्तमान’ के लिए जो आवश्यक था उससे परे सांसारिक आवश्यकताओं के बारे में नहीं सोचा था। बाबा बूटा सिंह जी अपना अधिकांश समय दोस्तों और अन्य परिचितों के साथ आध्यात्म पर चर्चा करने में व्यतीत करते थे

    Baba Buta Singh Ji
    बाबा बूटा सिंह जी
  • बाबा अवतार सिंह जी बाबा बूटा सिंह जी के उत्तराधिकारी बने

    बाबा अवतार सिंह जी ने बाबा बूटा सिंह जी का उत्तराधिकार किया और 1943 से 1962 की अवधि के दौरान ईश्वरीय संदेश का प्रचार किया। वह ईश्वरीय शब्द के प्रसार के माध्यम से मानव जाति के उत्थान के लिए काम करते थे।

    बाबा अवतार सिंह जी
  • बाबा गुरबचन सिंह जी तीसरे गुरु बने

    समय बीतने के साथ, भक्तों की तेजी से बढ़ती संख्या को कुछ संगठनात्मक सुधारों की आवश्यकता थी। इस उद्देश्य के लिए, बाबा जी ने 17 और 18 जुलाई, 1965 को पहला मसूरी सम्मेलन बुलाया, जिसमें आयोजकों और मिशन के प्रचारकों ने भाग लिया। प्रशासनिक संरचना को सुव्यवस्थित करने और मिशन के संदेश को फैलाने के लिए कई महत्वपूर्ण निर्णय लिए गए। इसके लिए, देश में मिशन के प्रशासनिक कार्य को चार क्षेत्रों में विभाजित किया गया था।

    Baba Gurbachan Singh Ji
    बाबा गुरबचन सिंह जी

    बाबा जी ने 14, 15 और 16 मई, 1973 को दूसरा मसूरी सम्मेलन आयोजित किया। सम्मेलन मिशन के इतिहास में एक महत्वपूर्ण कड़ी बन गया क्योंकि इसमें मिशनरियों के लिए एक आचार संहिता प्रस्तावित की गयी थी।

    इस सम्मेलन में यह भी निर्णय लिया गया कि हमें किसी के आहार के कारण उससे घृणा नहीं करनी चाहिए और साथ ही साथ हमें स्वयं सभी प्रकार के नशे के सेवन से बचना चाहिए। एक अन्य निर्णय दहेज मुक्त विवाह को बढ़ावा देना और अन्य सामाजिक कार्यों में तपस्या का पालन करना था।

  • बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी चौथे गुरु बने

    तीसरे बाबा गुरुबचन सिंह जी की हत्या के बाद, उनके पुत्र बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी संगठन के प्रमुख बने और 13 मई 2016 को उनकी असामयिक मृत्यु तक ईश्वर-प्राप्ति के माध्यम से सार्वभौमिक भाईचारे के मिशन के संदेश को फैलाया।

    2005 में, उन्होंने नई दिल्ली में संत निरंकारी सरोवर परिसर में निरंकारी संग्रहालय की स्थापना की।

    Baba Hardev Singh Ji
    बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी

    बाबा जी ने इस बात पर जोर दिया कि सत्य की प्राप्ति प्रत्येक मनुष्य की मूल आवश्यकता है जो धर्म, जाति, पंथ, रंग, सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति और सांस्कृतिक विविधताओं के आधार पर सभी संघर्षों से ऊपर उठे। एक बार जब हम भगवान की एकता को समझते हैं, तो हम मानव जाति की विविधता, विविधता में एकता की सराहना करते हैं और सार्वभौमिकता की भावना के साथ रहना शुरू करते हैं। भीतर शांति और बाहर सद्भाव स्वचालित रूप से पालन करते हैं। हम भगवान और नबियों के नाम पर लड़ना बंद कर देते हैं

    13 मई 2016 को कनाडा के मॉन्ट्रियल, क्यूबेक में एक कार दुर्घटना में हरदेव सिंह जी की मृत्यु हो गई।

  • सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी मिशन का नेतृत्व करने वाली 5 वीं गुरु और पहली महिला बनीं

    परम पावन सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी, 13 मई 2016 को एक कार दुर्घटना में हरदेव सिंह जी की मृत्यु के बाद मिशन का नेतृत्व करने वाली 5 वीं गुरु और पहली महिला बनीं

    Satguru Mata Savinder Hardev Ji
    सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी

    सविंदर जी की प्राथमिक शिक्षा फर्रुखाबाद में हुई। इसके बाद, 1966 में उन्हें कॉन्वेंट ऑफ जीसस एंड मैरी वेवरली, मसूरी भेजा गया, जहाँ से उन्होंने 1973 में भारतीय स्कूल प्रमाणपत्र परीक्षा (सीनियर कैम्ब्रिज, सीनियर सेकेंडरी के बराबर) पास की।

    सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव जी हमेशा युवा पीढ़ी के लिए प्रेरणा का एक महत्वपूर्ण स्रोत थी। मिशन की ओर उन्हें आकर्षित करने और उन्हें भाग लेने के लिए राजी करने का उनका अपना आकर्षक तरीका था ।

    इस तरह, जब संत निरंकारी मिशन का नेतृत्व करने का आह्वान किया गया, तो इसके आध्यात्मिक प्रमुख के रूप में, परम पावन माता सविंदर हरदेव जी को अपनी आवश्यकताओं को अच्छी तरह से समझने का लाभ मिला। उन्होंने पहले दिन मिशन को ऊंचाइयों पर ले जाने का संकल्प लिया, जहां बाबा हरदेव सिंह जी महाराज देखना चाहते थे। वह भारत और विदेश के प्रत्येक प्रचारक और प्रबधंक को व्यक्तिगत रूप से जानती थी। उन्होंने उन्हें अपने आपसी प्रेम और सहयोग को मजबूत करने और इस पवित्र प्रयास में उनकी मदद करने के लिए कहा।

    हालाँकि, उन्होंने 5 अगस्त, 2018 को शाम 5.15 बजे अंतिम सांस ली।

  • सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा सिंह जी मिशन की वर्तमान गुरु बनीं

    17 जुलाई 2018 को, मिशन के पूर्व प्रमुख सतगुरु बाबा हरदेव सिंह और माता सविंदर हरदेव की बेटी सुदीक्षा सिंह को निरंकारी सतगुरु और संत निरंकारी मिशन के आध्यात्मिक प्रमुख के रूप में सतगुरु माता सविंदर हरदेव के आशीर्वाद से घोषित किया गया था।

    सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा सिंह जी

    सतगुरु माता सुदीक्षा जी महाराज की जन्मतिथि 1 जून 1985 है और वह इस समय इस मिशन में पूरे समर्पण और प्रतिबद्धता के साथ नेतृत्व कर रही हैं।

उत्तराखंड में निरंकारी मिशन की उपस्थिति सर्वविदित है। निरंकारी भवन के शुरुआती केंद्रों में से एक मसूरी में प्रसिद्ध कैमल बैक मार्ग पर स्थित है। इसके ऊपर की होर्डिंग में “एक को जानो, एक को मानो, एक हो जाओ” लिखा हुआ ह।

उत्तराखंड में निरंकारी मिशन के केंद्रों के कुछ स्थान निम्नलिखित हैं

  1. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, कैमल बैक रोड मसूरी, उत्तराखंड
  2. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हरिद्वार बाईपास, कालागाँव, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  3. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, 36, त्यागी रोड, गोविंद नगर, रेस कोर्स, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  4. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, गंगा नगर, ऋषिकेश, उत्तराखंड
  5. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, पंचवटी कॉलोनी, देवपुरा, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  6. संत निरंकारी भवन, बहादराबाद, औद्योगिक क्षेत्र, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  7. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, भगवानपुर, उत्तराखंड
  8. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, बिलासपुर-रुद्रपुर-हल्द्वानी रोड, रुद्रपुर, उत्तराखंड
  9. निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हल्द्वानी, गौजजली बिचली, उत्तराखंड
  10. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, गढ़ीनेगी, उत्तराखंड
  11. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, नादेही रोड, जसपुर, उत्तराखंड
  12. संत निरंकारी भवन, गुरुकुल नारसन, नरसेन कलां, उत्तराखंड
  13. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन आश्रम, देहरादून Rd, गांधी नगर, रुड़की, उत्तराखंड
  14. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, डोईवाला, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड
  15. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, नई टिहरी, उत्तराखंड
  16. संत निरंकारी भवन, उत्तरकाशी, उत्तराखंड
  17. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, चंबा, उनियाल गाँव, उत्तराखंड
  18. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, लक्सर, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  19. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, लाम ग्रंट, हरिद्वार, उत्तराखंड
  20. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, कंसमर्दानी मार्ग, श्रीनगर, उत्तराखंड गढ़वाल, उत्तराखंड
  21. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, हल्दूखाता मल्ला, उत्तराखंड
  22. संत निरंकारी सत्संग भवन, शाहपुर, प्रेम नगर, देहरादून, उत्तराखंड

उत्तराखंड में मिशन द्वारा सामाजिक सुधार, रक्तदान शिविर, नि: शुल्क नेत्र जांच शिविर, सवास्थ्य कार्यक्रम, शिक्षा पहल, महिला और युवा सशक्तीकरण कार्यक्रम, वृक्षारोपण अभियान और स्वच्छता अभियान जैसे विभिन्न कल्याणकारी कार्य किए जाते हैं। ये गतिविधियाँ संत निरंकारी चैरिटेबल फाउंडेशन द्वारा की जाती हैं।

आशा है कि निरंकारी मिशन और इसकी चैरिटेबल फाउंडेशन द्वारा अच्छे कार्य जारी रहे और यह लोगों को हर जगह एक को समझने, एक में विश्वास करने और एक होने के लिए प्रेरित करता है।

Source of the pictures: https://nirankarifoundation.org
Research Contribution: Nirankari Bhawan Mussoorie

Summer Capital of Uttarakhand: Gairsain

In March 2020, Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat announced that Gairsain(गैरसैंण) of Chamoli district would be made the summer capital of Uttarakhand during the presentation of the budget.

CM, Shri Trivendra Singh Rawat

After coming into existence as a separate state(9th, November 2000), Uttarakhand has been talking about permanent capital for the last 20 years, but till date could not get a permanent capital. Dehradun is the state capital, but it is considered as the temporary capital of Uttarakhand. The demand to make Gairsain a capital is not new. Even during the state movement, there was a demand to make Gairsain the capital.

Map of Uttarkhand with important landmarks

It is in common knowledge that there are two administrative divisions in Uttarakhand, Kumaon and Garhwal. After the formation of the state, Dehradun, located in the Garhwal region, was made the capital, while the High Court remained in Nainital of Kumaon. Apart from this, Uttarakhand is one of the few states in the country, where there are two Raj Bhawan for the Governor – Dehradun and Nainital (In summer, the Governor stays here)

Now Uttarakhand has become the fifth state in the country which has 2 capitals. There are 3 capitals proposed in Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra have 2 capitals each. Jammu and Kashmir also have 2 capital cities, but in the year 2019, it was removed from the state list and made a union territory.

People associated with the Uttarakhand Andolan and the people of the beautiful place called Gairsain especially are ecstatic about the decision.

Following are some of the interesting facts about Gairsain

  • Gairsain falls in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand and has the status of a Nagar Panchayat.

  • The word Gairsain is made up of two local dialect words. ‘Gair ‘and ‘Sain’. ‘Gair’ means the deep place in both Kumaoni and Garhwali languages ​​and the word ‘Sain’ means the plain terrain. In this way, it means a plain area in the deep. An adjoining village is also named Gair and some attribute the name Gairsain as the deep plain area at the foot of Gair Village.

  • Gairsain is about 260 kilometres from Dehradun, the temporary capital of the state. While its distance from the national capital Delhi is 450 kilometres. At the same time, the distance from Haridwar is 240 kilometres.

  • Gairsain is situated at the eastern edge of the vast Dudhatoli mountain range, located almost at the centre of the state.

  • Gairsain is just about 16 km from the Almora district border along National Highway 87. The nearest railway station to Gairsain is Ramnagar which is 150 km away. The nearest airport is Gauchar Airport, at Gauchar which is approximately 54 km.

  • In ancient Indian literature, this area has been celebrated as Kedar Kshetra.

  • According to the 2011 census, the population of Gairsain tehsil is 62,412, which includes 28,755 males and 33,657 females. While the literacy rate is 78.66%. The sex ratio here is 1,170, which is much higher than the national average.

  • Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi sat on a hunger strike 13 times to make Gairsain the capital and formation of the state of Uttarakhand from 1997 onwards. He united the people of the hills and his last fast (in Adibadari) lasted for 38 days. He died in August 2004 during this fast.
Baba Mohan Uttarakhandi

The picturesque town of Gairsain is emerging as a tourist destination since it is a part of the major route connecting Garhwal and Kumaon region. It is also the site of the source of the Ramganga River flowing near the Dudhatoli mountain. The famous tourist attractions located in and around Gairsain are the Nanda Devi National Park, Vasundhara Falls, Adi Badri, Vriddha Badri, and Yog Dhyan Badri. 

Gairsain, the summer capital of Uttarakhand

As the summer capital of Uttarakhand, it will attract even more tourists. One planning a trip to Uttarakhand should visit this place and immerse in the beauty of Gairsain. 

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